Blue Coloured Gemstones

By Alice Koh
[For educational purposes only].

The colour blue induces serenity and tranquility. It symbolises stability and reliability in business. Often people in power wear a blue tie or a blue power shirt. The power suit is a female suit that is conservative and bold. It is also the classic menswear staple.

Blue is the colour of heaven and the sea. It is therefore a sacred and spiritual colour. Blue is also the skin colour of the most ancient god, the Hindu god Shiva.

In the rainbow, the colour blue is found between the indigo and green.

The king of blue coloured gemstones is by definition blue sapphires.

Blue Sapphire
Sapphire is derived from the Greek SAPPHEIROS which means BLUE STONE. It is the most loved blue gemstone since ancient times.

The shades of blue vary in hue from pale to deep azure or dark royal blue to indigo with the most highly desired being the velvety cornflower blue also called Kashmir Sapphire.

Sapphires occur in almost every colour of the rainbow except red. They are durable with a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale. It is considered a precious gemstone the same as diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. Some sapphires display asterism, the star effect. They can change colour too. The colour change sapphires are very rare and also the blue star sapphires are highly desirable by gem collectors. The most sought after blue sapphires are the ones coming from Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Specimens from Kashmir and Mogok, Burma are said to be of the finest quality. Blue sapphires from Cambodia (Pailin) are also desirable for their unique purity.

Blue Sapphire is the official birthstone of September. It is also the gemstone given for the fifth, forty-fifth and sixty-fifth wedding anniversary.

Since ancient times sapphires were considered to be sacred stones. Because in all its celestial hues, they resembled the blueness of the Heaven of the Heavens. This heavenly blue signified celestial hope and faith and was believed to bring protection, good fortune and spiritual insight. It was a symbol of power and strength, of kindness and wise judgement.

This gem was sacred to Phoebus Apollo, the light bringer and a giver of knowledge. The god of the Oracle at Delphi who slayed Python, the monster of mental darkness. Therefore sapphires were also considered to be destroyers of poisonous reptiles and insects. Necromancers, priests and priestesses sought this stone for its purported ability to influence spirits and make clear oracular pronouncements.

Blue sapphires can be created in the laboratory.

Blue Topaz
TOPAZ comes from the Greek word TOPAZIOS which means "to divine, guess and conjecture".

It is a silicate mineral with aluminum and fluorine. It has a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale which makes it ideal to be used in jewellery. Topaz has a glass-like luster and is translucent to transparent. It feels very smooth, almost slippery to the touch. Real topaz feels cool.

Under long wavelength UV light, white and blue topaz show a weak yellow or greenish fluorescence.

Topaz occurs in a wide range of colours. The most valuable colours for use in jewellery are natural pink, orange, red, purple and blue.

The most affordable and frequently purchased is blue topaz that got its colour from treatment. Pale blue to deep blue is extremely rare in nature. Most often, in order to obtain this lovely blue color, topaz is irradiated and heat treated. The two trade names of blue topaz are the Swiss Blue and the much darker London Blue Topaz. Both are gorgeous, easily available and fairly inexpensive.

Topaz has been used as a gemstone since ancient times by the great civilisations of Hindus, Greeks and the Egyptians.

Topaz was believed to cure insanity. Till today, it is used as a powerful amulet of protection against any types of danger. It is said to protect the wearer from epidemics, wild passions, witchcraft and the envious look of the Evil Eye. It gives extra-sensory perceptions like a glimpse of the afterlife.

The topaz was called the Stone of Power because it was thought to give sexual potency and strength. It was believed that in each full and new moon, this power manifested itself into its highest potential.

Blue Topaz is the birthstone for December and the 4th year anniversary gemstone.

Like most sacred stones, topaz enhances intuition and psychic abilities and attracts wealth and prosperity to one's life.

Blue Topaz is the second most sought after gemstone after Sapphire.

Blue Tanzanite
Tanzanite is the blue and violet variety of the mineral zoisite.

Tanzanite has a hardness ranging from 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale. It is transparent and has a vitreous luster. Together with a perfect cleavage, it can split or fracture if struck too hard. As rings are more prone to knocks, it is usually protected by bezel setting.

Tanzanite is extremely rare. It is 1000 times rarer than diamonds.

Fine tanzanite has such a richness and depth of colour that even the finest sapphire cannot match and Merelani in Tanzania is the only significant locality in the world for such crystals.

The gemstone was known as Blue Zoisite until 1968 when Tiffany & Co. started to market it under Tanzanite which was named after Tanzania, the country in which it was discovered. Tiffany & Co. did not like the name "Blue Zoisite" as it could be misread and misheard as "blue suicide"!

Tanzanite comes in various intensity and saturation of blues ranging from light sky blue to deep midnight blue. Within the same gemstone are tints of violet and purple. Tanzanite also comes in violet colours. But it is the blue ones that fetch the highest prices.

One distinguishing feature of Tanzanite is its trichroism. This is the rare ability to change colour from blue to red or pink to purple, three different colours to be exact, depending on the angle that is viewed from. This mesmerising colour change can be seen in one gorgeous faceted gemstone.

Tanzanite also shows different colours under various light sources. In fluorescent lights, it becomes bluer; under incandescence, red is more prominent; candlelight brings out the dark red-purple or dark red-brown colours; under sunlight, the blues seem to catch fire. This is true Mother Earth’s magic with no tricks involved.

Tanzanite is a bridge between the spiritual plane and the physical plane. It enhances one’s psychic abilities and brings the gift of fortune, clairvoyance, intuition and self-knowledge.

Raw Tanzanite is usually heated to rid of its brown, yellow, red and purple tints. The heat also enhances the blue in this gemstone.

Blue Spinel
Spinel comes from the Greek word SPINOS which means a Spark.

Spinels are often found together with corundum (rubies and sapphires). This shows that the ancient Greeks and Middle-Age Europeans knew the differences between spinel, ruby and sapphire.

Spinel is a rare and flawless gemstone of magnesium aluminum oxide. It comes in a wide variety of colours such as red, blue, orange, brown, violet, purple, gray and black (green and yellow are extremely rare).

Spinel is transparent to opaque with a glass-like luster. It has a hardness of 8 on the Mohs scale. That means that it can be cut and faceted into almost any shapes although circles, ovals and cushion cuts are the most popular.

Red spinel has a strong red fluorescence whereas blue spinel has a weak, reddish and green fluorescence.

Due to its rarity, spinels are often synthesized in laboratories.

Unlike the natural colours of spinels, sapphires, tanzanites and aquamarines are often heat treated to achieve their coveted blue colours. This is not so with spinel as it comes in a beautiful natural blue.

Most spinels are transparent with no obvious inclusions. Sometimes a spinel with a distinctive fingerprint like inclusion may appear and these swirling patterns actually add to the gemstone’s magic.

One of the rarest hues ever found in a spinel, is the cobalt blue Vietnamese natural spinel which has a high refractive index that gives its natural colour an intense fire. Vivid traffic light red and cobalt blue are the most expensive colours for spinel.

Ceylonite and pleonaste are dingy blue or grey to black varieties of spinel.

Spinels are rejuvenating, energizing and inspiring gemstones. They are destroyers of obstacles, givers of optimism and determination to succeed in whatever projects you have set your mind to accomplish.

The revitalizing metaphysical property of spinel helps you in your career goals and in your amorous courtship. It also helps you to let go of negative relationships. Not only that, each coloured spinel brings its own metaphysical healing properties; blue spinel stimulates clear communication.

Spinels are to be put at each corner of the house if you want it to protect your home environment from calamity. The same thing can be done in your garden or cornfields and it will protect the harvest from storms and lightning and thus give you a bountiful harvest.

The spinel is also referred to as The Stone of Immortality. It boosts your vitality and stamina and allows you to overcome any health issues.

Blue Lapis Lazuli
Lapis lazuli was very highly regarded by the gods and kings since ancient times and prized more than its weight in gold.

Lapiz lazuli derives its name from the Latin word LAPIS meaning "stone" and the Arabic-Spanish AZUL meaning "blue".

Its chemical formula is made up of sodium calcium aluminum silicate and comes in colours such as vivid dark blue, violet and greenish-blue. Nonetheless, since ancient times, Lapis lazuli has been cherished as the original blue stone.

Lapiz lazuli always come with inclusions of white calcite or golden pyrite. Those with golden flecks of pyrite are more valuable whereas stones with streaks of white calcite is less prized.

The deepest blue, violet blue or indigo blue with few inclusions are rare therefore the most valuable.

Lapis lazuli has a hardness of 5 to 6 on Mohs hardness scale. It has a glass-like, waxy to dull luster. It may have a strong white, orange and copper colour fluorescence or undertones.

The myth of Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love and war, spoke of her descent and return from the underworld wearing her finest clothes and a necklace made of lapis lazuli. She was also bearing a rod made of the same precious stone.

The Ishtar Gate at Babylon which was constructed in 575 BCE, had wall bricks glazed with lapis lazuli, a stone that was very revered in ancient Babylon.

Ancient Babylonians, as well as Assyrians and Egyptians used lapiz lazuli for their sacred amulets and cylinder seals. The tombs of Egyptian mummies were decorated with lapiz lazuli.

The brilliant blue lapis with twinkling flecks of gold has fascinated civilizations across the world. It is the shaman's stone since ancient times. The ancient Sumerians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Chinese and so forth all realized its spiritual value and used it as such. Lapis lazuli was made into amulets and talismans and was the stone of choice to adorn the burial chambers of the high priests and kings of ancient times.

Lapis lazuli was called the Stone of Heaven because magicians of old said that the stone was reminiscent of a sky full of stars. It was considered a piece of heaven given to men by the gods.

Lapis lazuli is a very spiritual stone. The Sumerians believed that the spirit of their gods lived within the stone.

Lapis is one of the most beautiful and sacred blue gemstone used by humanity since ancient times. Northern Afghanistan is the source of the finest lapis lazuli. Lapis is defined as a rock and not a mineral. Many lapis stones may contain as many as 15 different minerals in a single stone. The vivid blue colour of lapis lazuli is due to lazurite.

Generally lapis lazuli is not treated. However, lapiz lazuli can be dyed to create even, intense blue colour

Blue Turquoise
Turquoise is derived from the French word TURQUOISE meaning TURKISH STONE because this sacred stone was first introduced to Europe via Turkey.

Turquoise is a sky-blue or blue-green and apple-green translucent to opaque basic aluminum phosphate that contains copper. However, it is generally waxy to sub-vitreous and is usually opaque.

Turquoise has a hardness ranging from 5 to 6 on the Mohs scale. It has a weak, green-yellow, light-blue fluorescence.

For centuries, turquoise has been a sacred stone for many ancient civilizations and cultures such as the ancient Egyptians, the Mesoamericans, Persians, Mesopotamians, the Incas, people of the Indus Valley and ancient Chinese.

The ancient Egyptians used turquoise as an amulet for good luck and for protection against illnesses, demons and misfortune.

Turquoise has been put at the third eye of buddha statues, denoting the prophetic insight of this sacred stone.

Turquoise often comes with speckled veins of brown, dark-grey or black which can be sparse or dense. Turquoise that contains veins is referred to as "turquoise matrix". A pure, flawless blue turquoise is rarely found.

The most popular colour of turquoise is sky-blue , also called "robin's egg blue" or "Persian blue", followed by blue-green or apple-green.

Translucent turquoise is also rare and therefore, the most desirable.

Nonetheless, there is a turquoise that comes with veins that is much loved. This is the spider web turquoise, also called cobweb turquoise matrix. This particular turquoise has a lovely web-like patterns.

Because of turquoise hardness, it is mostly cut en cabochon and it is also carved into ornamental objects and used for inlays. Spherical turquoise beads, tumbled pieces of turquoise and turquoise chips are also very common in turquoise jewellery.

Turquoise sometimes is impregnated with polymers, wax or plastic to enhance the colour and harden its surface. Oil or paraffin, colours or copper salt are also used to enhance turquoise colour. Imitation turquoise is made from dyeing chalcedony or howlite. Glass, porcelain and plastic are glued with powdered turquoise to make imitation turquoise gemstones.

Turquoise imitations are Neolite also known as Reese turquoise which has a dark matrix. Neo turquoise is another imitation with a dark matrix; and finally another imitation is called Viennese turquoise.

Turquoise has a unique ability to change colours. Due to this, it was used in prophecy and divination purposes. It was also used as a diagnostic tool for the physical health condition of the person wearing it. The English poet John Donne describes this accurately in his poem from “An Anatomy of the World: The First Anniversary” lines 343-344:

"As a compassionate turquoise that doth tell
By looking pale the wearer is not well."

In many cultures of the Old and New Worlds, turquoise has been esteemed as a holy stone, a bringer of good fortune and health. It is one of the best healing stones in the world. It creates a connection between Mother Earth and the Spirit World. It promotes an energetic flow of love and happiness. This flow of energy has a therapeutic benefit in inducing tranquility and calm.

In feng shui, turquoise carries water energy.

The colour turquoise was named after the gemstone.

Turquoise can be found in blue colour with a touch of green. The most valuable type of turquoise is the sky-blue with minimum veining. Turquoise can occur with black veins or a complex matrix pattern which are also desirable. The colour blue in turquoise comes from traces of copper and the colour green in turquoise comes from traces of iron.

Turquoise is a December birthstone.

Blue Aquamarine
The word is derived from the Latin AQUAMARE, which means water of the sea. It is renowned for its crystal blue colours and its excellent clarity. It is also known as the emerald's sister stone. While both stones are of the beryl family, aquamarine possesses a delicate, light blue hue reminiscent of the ocean’s calm. Aquamarines are often without inclusions and they are as clear as water, symbolizing purity of the soul and spirit.

Aquamarine and light blue topaz are identical in colour and therefore it is very hard to tell them apart. Aquamarine is much more costly than topaz. Some people seek advantage by selling topaz in place of aquamarine to make great profit.

Aquamarines are most valuable because they are natural therefore rare. Blue topaz is more accessible due to the fact that it is produced by colouring a white topaz through irradiation and intense heating.

In most cultures, aquamarine is closely knit with the sea and often held as the sailors' stone and is used as a talisman to bring sailors good luck as well as to protect them against the wrath of the seas.

Since early times, aquamarine has been believed to endow the wearer with foresight, courage and happiness.

The beautiful blue of aquamarine is coloured by traces of iron. Aquamarine is natural and therefore is an untreated gemstone. It has an excellent hardness and durability. Cat's eye aquamarine is very rare but can be found.

Blue Labradorite
Labradorite comes in a variety of colours such as dark grey to grey-black, colourless, orange-red and brownish with colourful iridescence. Labradorite is often found in the deep blue range of colours.

Its hardness is 6 to 6.5 on the Mohs scale which means that it is hard enough for any type of jewellery. It has a perfect cleavage and is transparent to opaque. But, as a whole, labradorite is an opaque gemstone. Its luster is vitreous or glass-like and its fluorescence is of a yellow marking.

Labradorite is a healers' stone. Throughout the ages it has been popular with the shamans as it enhances mental and intuitive abilities. It sharpens clairvoyance and telepathy and is also a good prophesizing tool.

Labradorite occurs with a metallic sheen usually of a lovely deep blue colour. Some labradorites display a gorgeous iridescence exhibiting the full colours of the spectrum. These gemstones are known as Spectrolite.

Blue Larimar
Larimar was known as blue pectolite. However the name hardly reflect such a splendid stone with its blues so evocative of the Caribbean seas. Miguel Méndez who discovered the blue pectolite in the Dominican Republic in 1974 decided to name the stone Larimar after his daughter Larissa and the Spanish word for the sea "mar". Larissa is Greek and it could mean Nymph or Citadel. Either name describes the blue pectolite beautifully i.e., the Nymph of the Sea.

Larimar, the blue variety of pectolite, has been sold as a gemstone from 1974. It is the blue variety of the sodium calcium hydroxide mineral known as pectolite, a mineral that is too soft and fragile to be cut as a gemstone. However blue pectolite has densely packed and entwined crystals enabling it to be strong enough to be used as a gemstone.

Larimar ranges from 4.5 – 5 on the Mohs hardness scale which makes it relatively soft for a gemstone. But the bluer the stone, the harder it is. Deep blue sections of the gemstone can be rated as high as 7 on the Mohs hardness scale.

Larimar has a silky luster and a weak green fluorescence.

Blue pectolite is a rare variety found only in the Dominican Republic, in the Caribbean. Its coloration varies from white, light-blue, green-blue to deep blue, reminiscent of the ocean colours of the Caribbean.

'Larimar' is also called the Stefilia Stone, Dolphin Stone and the Atlantis Stone.

The blue colour of larimar is due to the presence of copper and manganese.

As it has a low hardness, larimar jewellery is often protected in a bezel-style setting.

Larimar is not treated in any way to enhance its beautiful colour. However cheap white stones may be dyed blue to imitate larimar.

Larimar is opaque so if you can hold it up to light, check that no light comes through even at the edges as this could be an indicator of painted glass or dyed quartz.

Volcanic blue larimar has a rich deep blue colour that is the most desired and at the same time most valuable. Sky blue with cloud-like patterns are also highly priced.

Larimar's soothing energy relaxes, relieves stress and brings inner peace and calm. Stress is known as the silent killer. It is the cause of many physical and mental illnesses. Larimar is the perfect stone to wear or carry around for relief of any feelings of unease.

Blue Tourmaline
Tourmaline has a hardness ranging from 7 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale. It is transparent to opaque with a glass-like luster.

Due to its electrical properties, tourmaline can be magnetized to attract dust, ash, shavings and general environmental pollutants.

Tourmaline's amazing range of colours make it a highly desirable gemstone. Though it occurs in all colours of the spectrum, pure blue, red, orange, yellow and purple stones are rare and thus much loved.

Tourmaline is pleochroic. It can change colours when viewed from different angles.

- Indicolite Tourmaline is violet, blue and turquoise

- Paraiba Tourmaline is of neon blue-green, turquoise to green glowing colours. These are the most sought after especially the rare neon blue type. Its price can go higher than that of a diamond. The Paraiba tourmaline was named after the locality where it was discovered in Paraiba, Brazil in 1989. Interestingly, Nigeria, which faces Brazil across the Atlantic, also discovered similar coloured tourmaline.

Sparkling one-coloured tourmalines such as reds, blues and greens are usually the most highly valued. However, it is the electric green and neon blue of the Cuprite Tourmaline and the Paraiba Tourmaline that are generally the most prized. It is the unique internal glow of the Paraiba tourmaline that makes it precious and popular. The radiance is usually described as neon or electric. This glow is created by the trace amounts of copper.

Today, tourmaline is still revered as a psychic shield deflecting and dispelling negative energies on all fronts.

Tourmaline promotes healing and brings balance to the soul. It is often referred to as a stone of wisdom as it inspires positive attitude and stimulates creativity and learning.

Pure blue tourmaline is very rare as most blue tourmalines display a noticeable secondary green hue.

Tourmaline is October's birthstone.

Blue Fluorite
From fluorite we get fluorescence which you find in fluorites under ultraviolet light and fluorine which is the chemical element of atomic number 9, a poisonous pale-yellow gas of the halogen series.

Every colour of the rainbow in various shades is represented by fluorite samples, along with white, black, and clear crystals. The most common colours are purple, blue, green, yellow or colorless. Less common are pink, red, white, brown and black. Colour mixing is commonly present in fluorites. Fluorite has been named "the most colourful mineral in the world"

Fluorite brings order to chaos, whether it is a chaotic mind, emotional stress, physical mess or just a feeling of overwhelming dis-ease. Fluorite is able to soothe everything to its equilibrium. It is therefore a stone that you want to keep close to you. It is also an excellent stone to be held in your hand during meditation as you will be better able to harness its healing energy.

Fluorite is frequently fluorescent, i.e. it glows under ultra-violet light. It typically glows a blue-violet colour under shortwave and longwave light. Most fluorite gemstones are cut en cabochon. The most valuable fluorite is the colour change fluorite which is rare. It changes colour from blue in daylight and purple under incandescent light.

Blue Sodalite
Sodalite got its name from its high sodium content. It is of a basic copper carbonate chemical composition. It is a deep blue mineral with white veins or patches running through it.

Sodalite comes in a wide variety of colours such as white, gray, yellow, orange and pink. However, it is the deep blue colour which is similar to lapis lazuli that is usually used as a gemstone.

Sodalite has a hardness ranging from 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs scale. It has an indistinct cleavage. It is transparent to opaque with a glass-like to greasy luster.

Sodalite is also known as Alomite, Blue Stone and Ditroite.

Sodalite can be identified by its strong orange fluorescence and deep blue colour. Sometimes it can display a violet tint. Sodalite in its opaque form usually has white veins or patches running through it. These white veins are made up of calcite.

Transparent sodalite is faceted but it is quite rare. The opaque sodalite is typically cut en cabochon or into ovals, baguettes, rounds and fancy shapes.

Basic sodalite is the synthetic sodalite that has been in the gemstone market since 1975.

Due to its high sodium content, Sodalite is a pure mineral while Lapis Lazuli is defined as a rock.

Another gemstone that looks similar to Sodalite is Blue Azurite also known as Chessylite. Azurite's Mohs hardness scale ranges from 3.5 to 4 which is lower than Sodalite's which is at 5.5 to 6 on the Mohs scale. They also differ in their chemical composition. Azurite is a copper carbonate hydroxide whereas Sodalite is of a basic copper carbonate chemical makeup.

Two other gemstones that may be confused with Sodalite are Dumortierite (which has a Mohs hardness of 7) and Lazulite (which has the same color and hardness to Sodalite). Nevertheless, they both lack the main identifier of a strong orange fluorescence that is found only in Sodalite.

It gives calming energy and inner peace to the wearer. It is sort of a philosopher’s stone because it brings logical reasoning to the wearer. It protects the wearer from all types of negative energy and helps the wearer see the good side in others.

It is believed that Sodalite possesses the energy of water and brings great benefits to houses, apartments, or offices. Feng Shui practitioners love this beautiful blue stone.

Other gorgeous blue gemstones include:

Blue Iolite
The property of exhibiting different colours in different directions by transmitted polarized light is known as pleochroism or pleochroic. Iolite is the most pleochroic of all gemstones. 'Dichroite' is another synonym for iolite in reference to its pleochroic ability. "Dichroite" is a Greek word which means 'two-coloured stone'. If observed from two different directions it will exhibit different colors. For example, iolite observed from one angle will look blue violet color and observed from another it will appear clear color.

Iolite is a variety of the cordierite mineral.

Iolite luster is glass-like and waxy (when polished) and it is transparent to translucent. It is one of the hardest of quartz being 7-7.5 on Mohs scale which makes it quite suitable as a jewellery gemstone.

Iolites are blue, purple and grey. The sapphire blue and the light-blue iolites are the more sought after and therefore valuable. This beautiful violet-blue color is due to iron in iolite.

Iolite can sometimes be mistaken for sapphire and tanzanite due to its blue colour and pleochroism. But iolite is the most pleochroic of all gemstones. Iolite is softer than sapphire and harder than tanzanite. Iolites are also trichroic (from the Greek trichroos which is translated as “three-coloured”).

Unlike tanzanite, iolite is rarely treated. Fine iolite comes in its beautiful blues and violets naturally.

Iolite helps in recovering balance and is recommended for those suffering from disorientation, lack of motivation, chronic disorganization and distraction.

Blue Azurite
Azurite derives its name from the Persian word LAZHWARD which refers to its distinguishing rich blue colour. The name AZURE BLUE refers to the deep lapis lazuli blue colour that can be seen in azurite.

Azurite has been called the Blue Malachite because it is a copper carbonate which is similar to malachite but comes in blue. Azurite is rarer than malachite, therefore, more valuable.

Azurite comes in dark-blue to azure blue color. It is transparent to opaque with a glass-like luster. Transparent and translucent azurite is extremely rare.

Azurite is 3.4 to 4 on the Mohs hardness scale. Being a fairly soft stone, it tends to be brittle and cracks easily making it hard to work in jewellery design. Its value is more as a mineral than as a gem. However, there are azurites that have been made into beautiful gemstones but usually they are cut “en cabochon.”

Azurite looks like lapiz lazuli without the golden pyrite dots. It is often found mixed with green malachite and this hybrid malachite and azurite is known as Azurmalachite. It is more common than pure azurite. Another hybrid of azurite is known as Bluebird Azurite which is a mixture of azurite with cuprite.

Sodalite, lazulite, dumortiertite quartz and hauynite have also been confused with azurite. However, the blue of azurite is so unique that this alone can distinguish it from other gemstones.

Azurite is known as the Stone of Heaven. It is believed to be able to awake extra-sensory psychic abilities and awareness in humans. It strengthens intuition and increases creativity. It helps us in our spiritual cleansing and awakening.

Azurite is very unstable due to its susceptibility of weathering in heat and light. These elements will weaken its rich blue colour into dull green or black.

In the 18th century, synthetic azurite pigment was invented. It is known as Prussian Blue. On top of it being a more stable and predictable material dye, it is also much less costly.

Dust from azurite is also toxic so it is recommended that you protect yourself from inhaling any azurite dust particles if you were to cut any azurite.

Azurite ages too like human beings. It loses its luster and its beautiful rich colour. This is the reason why we think this stone is magical and deserves our respect and care.

Azurite druzy which comes on its matrix host rock, is more durable with a greater hardness than blue azurite on its own.

Blue Zircon
Zircon is not to be confused with zirconia, cubic zirconia or zirconium which is a man-made diamond substitute.

Zircon is in fact the oldest gemstone ever discovered. It is also the oldest item on the planet! To be precise, it is 4.4 billion years old!

Zircon rivals diamonds in its unique high dispersion and refractive index. Its double refraction means that when light enters the gem, this light "bounces" into two rays of light which then disperses into a myriad of rainbow colours. This "fire" is therefore much more intense than the sparkles of diamonds.

Blue zircon is the most brilliant blue gemstone available. Zircon has a hardness ranging from 7 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale. However it is brittle over the facet edges which can wear down over time. Blue zircon displays a low greeenish hue. It is created by heating the brown zircon from Cambodia and Burma.

Zircon is said to be beneficial in all of the chakras as it stimulates energy and activates them. It gives inspiration to the wearer to act with purpose and confidence.

Blue Diamond
Diamond comes from the Greek word ADAMAS, ADAMANTOS which means Unconquerable, Invincible. Its name is a testament to its occult powers. In many legends and lore, you find this belief that if you want to conquer your enemies and win battles, you have to wear a diamond. Thus, the name, ADAMANTOS or Conqueror.

A diamond is crystallized carbon and has the same chemical composition as graphite though they differ a lot in physical structure. While graphite is the softest, diamond is 10 on the Mohs hardness scale (compare with sapphire and ruby which are 9 on the Mohs scale). This means that only a diamond can cut another diamond.

Diamonds come in many varieties of colours: white, blue, yellow, orange, red, green, pink and black. They are mostly transparent but some can be opaque. Only the transparent ones are used in jewellery.

The colours of diamonds can be altered by high temperature and irradiation treatment.

Diamonds have a high refractive brilliance. It refracts light in all directions at the same velocity (Note, diamonds are one of the few gemstones available today that do this). They shine like fire due to this high dispersion of light.

Diamonds without eye-visible inclusions are rare.

In the old days, only those privileged few were able to own diamonds. Today diamonds can be produced in laboratories and unlike the common myth that is spread in propaganda, diamonds are not rare.

Occultists believe that diamonds have occult powers. In order to exercise its full power, diamonds should be worn on the left side of the body where the heart is. They also believe that if a diamond is touched by someone who is sinful and wicked, then the occult powers of the diamond is lost forever. It would then become a CURSED diamond.

Blue diamond is usually irradiated to obtain its colour though there are some very rare natural occurring blue diamonds. Blue diamonds also display a secondary greenish hue.

Blue Dumortierite Quartz
Dumortierite quartz is the term used to describe the blue variety of quartz. There are mainly 3 types of blue quartz and they all occur from inclusions that are formed within the quartz. These are the rarer and more outstanding varieties of quartz.

One particular blue quartz is the rare blue chalcedony of the microcrystalline quartz variety.

There is another blue quartz that is coloured by dumortierite inclusions. This is known as dumortierite quartz which is even rarer than blue chalcedony.

Many of the blue quartz sold on the gemstone market today is artificially coloured synthetic quartz created by the hydrothermal method.

Pure dumortierite is extremely rare. They are usually formed as crystals within a quartz.

Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silicon and oxygen and it has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale.

Dumortierite is of a borosilicate chemical composition, with a hardness of 7 to 8.5 on the Mohs scale.

Dumortierite quartz is one of the rarer blue variety of quartz gemstone. It comes in light blue, blue, dark blue, violet-blue, white-blue and red-brown colors. It is a combination of quartz aggregate, intergrown with dumortierite inclusions.

Dumortierite quartz has a waxy to dull luster. Dumortierite has a weak blue, blue-violet and violet fluorescence while quartz typically has none.

Dark blue is the most common colour for dumortierite quartz. Very often the blue in dumortierite quartz is unevenly dispersed resulting in splotches of dark and light blue similar to sodalite and lapis lazuli. Usually it also exhibits streaks or spots of white with the blue colour.

Dumortierite quartz can look similar to blue magnesio-riebeckite, lapis lazuli, azurite and sodalite. However, it is harder and more durable. Blue magnesio-riebeckite has a hardness of 6 on the Mohs scale, lapis lazuli is between 5 and 6, azurite is soft at only 3.5 to 4 and sodalite is 5.5 to 6.

Dumortierite quartz is also known as 'blue moon quartz' or 'blue denim stone'.

Dumortierite quartz is not known to be treated or artificially enhanced in any way.

Dumortierite quartz enhances your organizing skills and self-discipline. It is believed that this lovely blue coloured quartz brings peace, order and self-expression to the life of the wearer.

When heated dumortierite quartz turns into pure white and thus often used for the production of porcelain and ceramics.

Blue Chrysocolla
Chrysocolla usually comes in green, blue, bluish-green, blackish-blue, brown and in multicolor. It is often found mixed with other minerals such as quartz, chalcedony, turquoise, malachite, azurite and even opal. This mix creates awesome swirls and patches of colours and pattern in chrysocolla. This intricate patterns and patches in chrysocolla form alluring abstract landscape designs that make each stone a rare and unique gem.

Pure blue chrysocolla is only 2 to 4 on Mohs hardness scale. Different intergrowths of minerals and the amount of silica during its formation affects and increases its hardness. For example, if a specimen is intermingled with quartz which has a hardness of 7, then this piece of chrysocolla will have 7 on Mohs hardness scale.

Its transparency is opaque sometimes near translucent. It has a waxy, glass-like luster.

The most highly esteemed chrysocolla gemstones are those that come in intense blue and green. Those that are intermingled with turquoise blue and light green are also sought after.

The Eilat Stone which is mined in Southern Israel is mixed with turquoise and malachite. It comes in blue to blue-green colors.

Another variety of chrysocolla is called Stellarite. It was also known as Chrysocolla Quartz. It is a light blue gemstone made up of Chrysocolla and Quartz.

Ancient Greeks and Romans and Ancient Egyptians made powerful magical amulets with chrysocolla for protection in this life and the journey to the afterlife. In ancient Egypt, it was also used as amulets to protect children. Chrysocolla was the gemstone favored by the Roman Emperor Nero.

Hippocrates, who is known as the father of medicine wrote about the healing properties of chrysocolla. During the Middle-Ages, doctors used chrysocolla to clean wounds and treat sore eyes.

The Incas, Mesoamericans as well as North American Natives, used chrysocolla to decorate their ritual objects and in their spiritual ceremonies.

Blue Kyanite
Kyanite is derived from a Greek word for 'blue', although Kyanite occurs in other colours besides blue.

The most sought after Kyanite is the one similar to sapphire-blue colour. Most Kyanite exhibit noticeable light to dark colour zoning, with some white blotches. It has a glass-like to pearly luster which makes it a very attractive gemstone. Kyanite hardness depends on how the gemstone is cut. When it is cut perpendicular to the long axis it has a hardness of 6 to 7 on the Mohs scale but when cut parallel to the long axis its hardness is only 4 to 4.5.

Blue Banded Agate
Agate occurs in a variety of colours and patterns including blue. This type of agate is known as Blue Lace Agate, Mohave Blue Agate and Blue Banded Agate. Usually, agates are dyed. Agate has excellent hardness and durability and is also one of the most multifaceted blue gemstones today.