E. A. Wallis Budge in his Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life tells us this:

"In the third section of this papyrus [the _Papyrus of Nesi Amsu_ preserved in the British Museum ] we find a work which was written with the sole object of overthrowing [=A]pep, the great enemy of R[=a], and in the composition itself we find two versions of the chapter which describes the creation of the earth and all things therein. The god Neb-er-tcher is the speaker, and he says:

"I evolved the evolving of evolutions. I evolved myself under the form of the evolutions of the god Khepera, which were evolved at the beginning of all time. I evolved with the evolutions of the god Khepera; I evolved by the evolution of evolutions--that is to say, I developed myself from the primeval matter which I made, I developed myself out of the primeval matter. My name is Ausares (Osiris), the germ of primeval matter. I have wrought my will wholly in this earth, I have spread abroad and filled it, I have strengthened it [with] my hand. I was alone, for nothing had been brought forth; I had not then emitted from myself either Shu or Tefnut. I uttered my own name, as a word of power, from my own mouth, and I straightway evolved myself. I evolved myself under the form of the evolutions of the god Khepera, and I developed myself out of the primeval matter which has evolved multitudes of evolutions from the beginning of time. Nothing existed on this earth then, and I made all things. There was none other who worked with me at that time. I performed all evolutions there by means of that divine Soul which I fashioned there, and which had remained inoperative in the watery abyss. I found no place there whereon to stand. But I was strong in my heart, and I made a foundation for myself, and I made everything which was made. I was alone. I made a foundation for my heart (_or_ will), and I created multitudes of things which evolved themselves like unto the evolutions of the god Khepera, and their offspring came into being from the evolutions of their births."


There is no doubt that the Sacred Scarab Beetle was the most venerated, most depicted, and most used as an amulet in ancient Egypt.

It was used by the nobility, soldiers, and common people alike throughout the land of Egypt.

It was a reminder of the deathless spirit of the sun and as a sacred life and death giver. It was held in high esteem as giver of good luck and used as a homage to the Creator God who was God of the Living and of the Dead as well.

No one Egyptian Sacred Scarab is alike. They all have different inscriptions, symbols and mottoes.

Many have the names of the owners such as the names of the Kings [and Queens] of Egypt. Others give the titles of the wearer such as The Hereditary Mayor and Priest and The Superintendent of the Royal Temple, etcetera.

There were also mottoes inscribed to them such as “Life and Beauty;” or, “Beauty and Truth;” and it contained symbols such as the lotus, flowers and monkeys, and so forth.

Besides Egyptian Sacred Scarabs, Sacred Scarab amulets were also made by the Phoenicians, Greek and Etruscans.

Steatite stone was often used in making the Sacred Scarab, which were painted in blue and green. Egyptians also used Faience, Obsidian, Beryl, Crystal, Hematite, Cornelian, Jasper, Amethyst, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli, Granite, Serpentine and other stones like limestone, soapstone, glass, green basalt, terracotta, gold and silver.

The Sacred Scarab is a dung beetle with the scientific name of Scarabaeus Sacer [from Latin meaning Beetle and Sacred].

The Greeks call the Sacred Scarab Cantharus or Heliocantharus [Vessel of The Sun].

This particular beetle collects dung and turns it into a ball.

It rolls the dung to a certain place and buries it underground, either to be eaten as food later, or as a breeding ball where the female species lays a single large egg.

The Sacred Beetle is most famous due to its connection to the ancient religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Egyptians.

To the ancient Egyptians the Sacred Beetle was the symbol for the god Khapera, the early morning manifestation of the sun god Ra.

They held that since beetles came out of the buried dung, therefore, there must be only male beetles, and, thus, that they were able to create themselves from themselves just like the God Atum, who was held as self-begot and self-created.

Isaac Myer in his Scarabs, says this of the Sacred Egyptian Beetle:

"At least four species of beetles appear to have been held in veneration and were distinguished, by the absence or presence, of striated elytra. The Ateuchus sacer is the one commonly represented on the monuments. The number of the toes, thirty, symbolized the days of the month, and the movement of the ball, which it manufactured and in which was deposited its egg, symbolized among other things, the action of Ra, the Egyptian sun-deity, at midday."

At the head of the scarab there are six distinctive display of six projections that resemble rays. There are eight more projections in each front leg, totaling fourteen rays. These ray projections form an arc like the sun protruding its rays at dawn.

The scarab glyph represents Form or Manifestation.

The scarab god was associated with the transport or rolling of the sun across the sky. It was the symbol of metamorphosis, of rebirth and eternal return of the sun.

The Sacred Scarab was worn as an amulet, as a symbol of everlasting life, and as a charm for good luck, and as a symbol of fertility and regeneration.

A Sacred Scarab was put at the heart of the dead body, and also inside the tomb.